Lo que voy a ser cuando crezca!

Latest

Image

Driving in the moon

First american in space – 1961

President John F. Kennedy, Vice President Johnnson, and the First Lady of the USA.

President Kennedy watching the flight on TV together with the First Lady, Vice President Johnson and others. (Public domain) 

On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shephard became the first American to be launched into space.

The goal of Shepard’s mission, Mercury-Redstone 3 (or Freedom 7), was to send an astronaut into orbit around the Earth. The resulting 15-minute suborbital flight, in which the spacecraft hit a speed of 5,180 mph and an altitude of 101.2 nautical miles, demonstrated Shepard’s ability to withstand the g-forces of both launch (6.3 g) and re-entry (11.6 g).

(Fun fact: due to weather and some minor technical difficulties, the launch was delayed three hours, with Shepard all the while sitting in the bolted capsule. The grounds crew refused to let him out to urinate, prompting Shepard to, ahem, let loose in his suit.)During the flight, Shepard conducted observations of Earth, finding that it was difficult to see cities but easy to distinguish coastlines, islands, and major lakes.

Shepard also tested the spacecraft’s attitude control system and retrorockets, before re-entering the atmosphere and splashing down in the Atlantic Ocean off the Bahamas.

The Freedom 7 is currently on display in the Armel-Leftwich Visitor Center at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD, where it was placed after Shepard’s death in 1998.

https://www.wirelessdesignmag.com/blog/2016/05/tech-throwback-first-american-sent-outer-space

L’autorisation d’aller sur la Lune

Moon Express devient la première compagnie privée à avoir l’autorisation d’aller sur la Lune

moon_express_autorisation.jpg

Le gouvernement américain a autorisé l’entreprise spatiale privée Moon Express à conduire une mission vers la Lune. C’est la première fois qu’une autorisation est délivrée pour une mission au-delà de l’orbite terrestre. Mais beaucoup reste à faire.

C’est une grande première. Le gouvernement américain vient d’autoriser une compagnie spatiale privée à quitter l’orbite de la Terre pour une mission. L’équivalent d’un visa pour la Lune, en somme.

C’est la petite entreprise Moon Express qui a décroché le sésame. Elle a annoncé avoir obtenu l’autorisation fédérale mercredi 3 août. Une information que la FAA (Federation Aviation Administration) a rapidement confirmée.

L’entreprise souhaite envoyer un atterrisseur robotique sur la Lune d’ici fin 2017. Certes, le vaisseau doit encore être fabriqué et testé. Mais l’autorisation officielle est déjà une première grande étape.

VOIR AUSSI : Jack White a mis un peu d’ambiance dans l’espace en y faisant tourner un vinyle

Est-ce mettre la charrue avant les bœufs ? Non, quand on sait comme les validations administratives sont une terreur pour les entreprises spatiales. On se souvient ainsi de SpaceX, qui avait subi de près les affres de la bureaucratie avant de pouvoir amorcer quoique ce soit.

Absence de jurisprudence pour la Lune

Plusieurs agences fédérales américaines, parmi lesquelles le département d’État, la Nasa et le FAA, ont signé le plan présenté par Moon Express un peu plus tôt dans l’année.

“Il n’existait aucun cadre légale pour des missions privées au-delà de l’orbite terrestre. C’est la raison fondamentale qui a poussé Moon Express à proposer un cadre et combler ce vide en vue de la mission lunaire de 2017”, explique le PDG de Moon Express, Bob Richards, à Mashable, dans un e-mail.

De nombreux obstacles à surmonter

moon_express.jpg
Une illustration de l’atterrisseur de Moon Express sur la Lune.
MOON EXPRESS

Avec cette permission en poche, Moon Express doit encore construire et tester son vaisseau. Ce dernier devra être capable d’atterrir sur la Lune et d’accomplir une série de tâches s’il veut gagner la compétition Lunar X-Prize et ses 30 millions de dollars (27 millions d’euros). Ce concours, organisé par Google, doit donner un coup de pouce à la toute jeune industrie du vol spatial privé.

“Nous avons fait sauter la barrière législative, la barrière qui nous empêchait de lancer un vaisseau vers la Lune en 2017. Désormais, on peut revenir aux challenges que nous sommes capables de résoudre par nous-même : construire le vaisseau Moon Express et gagner de l’argent”, explique Bob Richards.

En soi, cette autorisation est déjà une première victoire : “L’autorisation pour la mission de 2017 est un grand accomplissement pour Moon Express, car nous ne pouvions pas la lancer sans l’avoir”, affirme Bob Richards. “C’est aussi à marquer d’une pierre blanche. Le gouvernement américain a appuyé le secteur des vols spatiaux commerciaux. Cela ouvre le chemin pour tout le monde pour des vols au-delà de l’orbite terrestre.”

Une autorisation pour tous ?

Le cadre réglementaire qui découle de la décision pourrait conduire davantage d’entreprises à envoyer des engins au-delà de l’orbite de la Terre. Car pour le moment, en plus d’être limitées dans leurs destinations, les compagnies privées doivent affronter une série de démarches administratives qui vérifient que la mission et les véhicules lancés sont sûrs et ne contreviennent à aucun traité international pour l’espace.

Moon Express n’est pas seul : d’autres entreprises sont en compétition pour le Lunar X-Prizeet d’autres, comme SpaceX, voit déjà au-delà : la planète Mars. En théorie, toutes ces entreprises devraient désormais pouvoir utiliser le cadre légal développé par Moon Express – ou quelque chose de similaire – afin de se lancer vers la Lune et au-delà. Cependant, le communiqué de la FAA précise que même si la décision a été en faveur de Moon Express, cela ne revient pas à assurer que “toutes les missions spatiales non-traditionnelles” seraient à l’avenir approuvées.

Autorisation à la discrétion de chaque pays

Le processus d’approbation s’est focalisé sur la sécurité de l’engin ainsi que sa conformité avec le Traité de l’espace des Nations-Unis. Celui-ci stipule entre autres que personne ne peut revendiquer de terre ailleurs que sur la Terre. Il établit aussi que chaque pays doit superviser les activités de ses compagnies spatiales privées. C’est pour cela que la FAA et les autres agences fédérales spatiales américaines ont eu autorité pour approuver la mission de Moon Express, entreprise américaine.

John Logsdon, professeur émérite de science politique et de relations internationales à l’Université George Washington, a déclaré que l’approbation obtenue par Moon Express était un grand pas en avant pour les entreprises spatiales privées.

“Si une économie extra-terrestre se développait dans les décennies ou siècles à venir, cette autorisation pourrait faire office de premier pas vers ce futur”, a déclaré à Mashable John Logdson. “Mais le processus alambiqué pour obtenir l’autorisation suggère aussi qu’il faudra commencer par rationaliser l’approche du gouvernement concernant l’exploration spatiale privée. Beaucoup reste à faire.”

– Adapté par Romain Houeix. Retrouvez la version originale sur Mashable.

Quelque chose à ajouter ? Dites-le en commentaire.

mashable.france24.com/monde/20160804-moon-express-autorisation-privee-lune

Moon Express 1st company to travel to moon

Moon Express becomes first private company to receive permission to go to the moon

Moon Express has officially become the first private company in the world to receive permission to travel beyond Earth’s orbit. After months of conversations with government officials, the company received the green light from the FAA to venture to the moon in 2017.

“We are now free to set sail as explorers to Earth’s eighth continent, the moon, seeking new knowledge and resources to expand Earth’s economic sphere for the benefit of all humanity,” said Bob Richards, co-founder and CEO of Moon Express.

The announcement marks an important milestone for private companies in the space industry because, so far, all commercial space activities have been limited to operations within Earth’s orbit.

Moon Express was born out of the Google Lunar X-PRIZE, an international contest with $30 million up for grabs for a private company who can soft-land on the moon and travel across its surface.

If successful, Moon Express will become the fourth entity in history to soft-land on the moon. The first three were all superpowers — the U.S., USSR and China – while Moon Express is privately funded and comprises 26 entrepreneurs and engineers.

It’s important to note that the permission given to Moon Express doesn’t necessarily set a precedent for other companies. Naveen Jain, co-founder of Moon Express, told TechCrunch that this permission is a one-time exception for their company. Jain stated the U.S. government plans to take future requests to travel beyond Earth’s orbit on a case-by-case basis until laws governing this activity can be passed.

Illustration of Moon Express lander / Image courtesy of Moon Express

Interestingly, the legalities surrounding a private mission to the moon came about a bit backwards.

First, Moon Express purchased a launch to the moon with Rocket Lab in October 2015. At that time, they didn’t have permission from the government to go to the moon or the regulatory security that they could have ownership of lunar resources they obtained if theycould get there.

Then, in November 2015, the Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act was passed, which explicitly stated that private companies are allowed full ownership of resources they extract in space. The bill made it legal for Moon Express to mine the moon and keep what they extracted, but they still didn’t have permission to travel to the moon in the first place.

This was the last piece of the regulatory puzzle, but from a security point of view, giving this permission to anyone with the resources to go is a bit tricky.

For example, national assets like reconnaissance satellites that monitor specific areas of the Earth are located over 20,000 miles away in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This is the farthest orbit that private companies have placed satellites in to date. Going beyond this orbit could potentially give a company full view of some of the most important space-based security satellites, making it important for the government to know exactly what a company intends to do on a mission past GEO.

Illustration of Moon Express MX-1 lunar lander / Image courtesy of Moon Express

Because no company had traveled beyond Earth’s orbit before, there wasn’t a plan in place for receiving permission to do so. Jain explained that representatives from multiple federal agencies, including the State Department and the NSA worked together to determine that the FAA, which is already responsible for granting launch licenses to rocket companies, should be the official point of contact for this type of activity.

On April 8th, 2016, Moon Express submitted an application for a 2017 commercial lunar mission to the FAA and has since received approval to move forward with its plans.

“This simply shows that every company can achieve their moon-shot,” said Jain.

The company will launch to the moon in the second half of 2017 on a rocket provided byRocket Lab. Jain stated that Moon Express’ first mission, which is a one-way trip, is expected to be profitable due to private payloads and sponsorships. The company also fully expects NASA to participate by sending a paid scientific payload, although their business plan is not dependent on it.

Once on the surface, Moon Express hopes to win further X-PRIZE awards by moving across the surface. Instead of roving, they will re-fire their rockets on the MX-1 lander and “hop” to different locations.

Moon Express MX-1 lander components / Image courtesy of Moon Express

When asked if they expect to beat other frontrunners in the competition, Jain focused instead on their future plans, saying “We don’t start a company to win a prize. Winning the Google Lunar X-PRIZE would just be the icing on the cake. We choose to go to the moon because it’s good business.”

In the future, the company expects to make money by harvesting resources on the Moon, like water and Helium-3, creating a fuel depot on the surface and eventually performing round-trip missions with the capability of bringing payloads back to the Earth. By the end of the year, Moon Express plans to double their employee base to over 50 people.

Jain told TechCrunch that he believes this is just the beginning of private companies’ presence in deep space and that the way people will make money in space is only limited by our imagination. Likening it to how the iPhone’s App Store enabled the creation of a diverse set of apps from companies all over the world, Jain said “We just don’t know what the Pokemon Go or the Snapchat of the space industry is yet.”

Now that Moon Express has received official permission to move forward with its plans, we can expect other U.S. companies with similar lunar aspirations, like Astrobotic, to follow suit in the near future.

It’s been nearly a decade since the Google Lunar X-PRIZE was announced and now most of the regulatory pieces are finally falling into place. Eventually, space-faring nations will need to put a plan in place to streamline private ventures beyond Earth’s orbit. For now, we’ll have to watch exploration progress one company at a time.

Image

Niña Argentina a Marte

La NASA prepara a una niña de 13 años para ser la primera persona en ir a Marte

  • Esta ambiciosa joven tiene claro que aunque no pueda volver de Marte, será la primera persona en pisar el planeta rojo.
  • Lleva preparándose nueve años y le queda un entrenamiento de 20. Su padre apoya que cumpla su sueño.

 Where will you find the woman of tomorrow?

Maybe on Mars.

When she was only 13, Alyssa Carson gave a TEDx lecture promoting space exploration.

And now she’s preparing for a Mars mission by learning foreign languages, studying math and science, and helping to build robots at space camps.

Alyssa Carson, una niña de 13 años del estado de Louisiana (EEUU), quiere convertirse en el primer ser humano en pisar Marte. Pese a su corta edad, ya cuenta con nueve años de entrenamiento para ser astronauta y realizar esta misión, que es su sueño desde niña.

Alyssa es la única persona en el mundo que ha asistido a los tres campamentos espaciales organizados por la NASA. Además, cuenta con el apoyo de sus padres.

No se trata de un sueño inalcanzable o de la ilusión de una niña ingenua. La agencia espacial cree que Alyssa es la persona perfecta para enviar al planeta rojo. “Esta niña tiene la edad perfecta para convertirse algún día en una astronauta y viajar a Marte”, asegura Paul Foreman, de la NASA, en una entrevista con la BBC. “Está haciendo todo lo correcto, está realizando el entrenamiento adecuado” para que su sueño de viajar al espacio se convierta en realidad.

Además de los entrenamientos de la NASA, Alyssa juega al fútbol y ha tenido tiempo para asistir a clases, aprender español, francés y chino, tocar el piano e inspirar a otros jóvenes a que se unan a la aventura espacial. 

https://share.america.gov/investment-that-benefits-everyone/ * http://www.teinteresa.es/ciencia/podria-primera-persona-pisar-Marte_0_1227478612.html * http://www.lavoz.com.ar/ciudadanos/la-nina-astronauta-de-13-anos-que-se-entrena-para-ir-marte

Si quieres información de la NASA para ir a Marte con Alyssa Carson, este es el enlace…

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/nasaandyou/home/index.html

Sobre Alyssa Carson / Marte

Plant for the Planet

Nine-year-old boy plants seed that yields 3 trillion trees   

By Bob Silberg,
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory

2393_foto-2-CHI-PIANTA-768px-80-cropped

Plant-for-the-Planet campaign in which the world’s children implore adults to “stop talking, start planting.” Seen here, Felix Finkbeiner with supporter Harrison Ford.

Felix Finkbeiner was a fourth-grade student in Bavaria in 2007 when his teacher assigned a classroom presentation on climate change. His research brought him to the story of Wangari Maathai of Kenya, the first African woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Among other accomplishments, she started a grassroots movement to counter deforestation and inspired the United Nations Environment Programme’s Billion Tree Campaign.

Felix challenged his classmates—and ultimately, children throughout the world—to plant a million trees in each country, an idea that grew into an international youth organization called “Plant-for-the-Planet.” In 2011, the UNEP turned its Billion Tree Campaign over to the organization Felix had started. By that time, the UN program had celebrated the planting of 12 billion trees.

READ MORE…

Where to put a trillion new trees? 

http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2393/nine-year-old-boy-plants-seed-that-yields-3-trillion-trees/ * www.plant-for-the-planet.org/ * https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant-for-the-Planet

Russian soccer in orbit!

Обръснаха американски астронавт…   

Астронавтите на НАСА Стивън Суонсън и Рийд Уайзман, влизащи в състава на екипаж 40/41 на Международната космическа станция /МКС/, бяха обръснати нула номер от германския си колега Александер Герст заради загубата на националния отбор по футбол на САЩ от състава на Германия на Мондиал 2014 в Бразилия, съобщиха Space.com и Нюзру.

НАСА разпространи видеозапис, на който се вижда как Герст бръсне главите на американците със специална “космическа” самобръсначка. Американците се бяха хванали на бас с германския си колега на МКС Александер Герст за изхода от мача между Германия и САЩ, който се игра на 26 юни. Бундестимът спечели с минималния резултат 1:0. Условията на баса бяха, ако САЩ спечелят срещата, германският астронавт, който по принцип си бръсне косата на главата, да си изрисува на челото американското знаме. При победа на Германия, Герст да обръсне косите на американските си колеги Суонсън и Уайзман, припомня ИТАР-ТАСС.

За да обръсне косите на астронавтите на НАСА, Герст използва специална машинка, снабдена с микропрахосмукачка. Тя е необходима, за да не се разлети косата из станцията в условията на безтегловност. След края на “операцията”, Герст качи в Туитър съответната снимка с надпис: “Мисията е изпълнена”. Загубилите облога американци приеха поражението си с чувство за хумор. Уайзман например написа в Туитър, че се радва да се събужда сутрин, без да се притеснява за прическата си.

En una victoria para Alemania, Gers afeitan el pelo de sus homólogos estadounidenses Swanson y Wiseman recuerda ITAR-TASS. Para afeitar el vello de los astronautas de la NASA Gers utiliza una máquina especial equipada con mikroprahosmukachka.

http://m.sportal.bg/news.php?category=&id=495515